This post is dealing with a situation where you attempt to add a certificate to a v2 Azure Application Gateway/Firewall (WAG_v2/WAF_v2) from an Azure Key Vault. The attempt fails and any further attempt to delete/modify the certificate fails with this error:
Invalid value for the identities ‘/subscriptions/xxxxxxx/resourcegroups/myapp/providers/Microsoft.ManagedIdentity/userAssignedIdentities/myapp-waf-id’. The ‘UserAssignedIdentities’ property keys should only be empty json objects, null or the resource exisiting property.
Application Gateway v2 and Key Vault
Azure Key Vault is the best place to store secrets in Microsoft Azure – particularly SSL certificates. Key Vault has a nice system for abstracting versions of a certificate so you can put in newer versions without changing references to the older one. There is also a feature for automatic renewal of expiring certs from certain issuers. I also like the separation of exposed resource from organisation secrets that you get with this approach; the legacy method was that you had to upload the cert into the WAG/WAF, but now WAG_v2/WAF_v2 allow you to store the certs in a Key Vault, and that limited access is done using a managed user ID (an Azure resource, not an Azure AD resource, which makes it more agile).
I was actually going to write a blog post about how to obtain the secret ID of a certificate from the Key Vault so you could add it to the WAGv2/WAFv2. But as I was setting up the lab, I realised that during the day, Microsoft had updated the Azure Portal blade so certs were instead presented as a drop-down list box; now my post was pointless. But I continued setting things up and hit the above issue.
When you use this architecture, WAF_v2/WAG_v2 requires that you have enabled soft delete on the Key Vault. And that’s the only check that they have been doing. The default setting for Key Vault soft delete is 90 days. I was in a lab, I was mucking around, so I set soft delete in my Key Vault to 7 days – a perfectly legit value for Key Vault. However, the Application Gateway (AppGW) requires it to be set to 90 days minimum … even though it does not check it!
To undo the damage you can run the following PowerShell cmdlets:
- Set-AzApplicationGateway to update the WAF
Thanks to Cat in the Azure network team for the help!
- Amit Srivastava, Principal Program Manager, Microsoft
Mission Critical HTTP Applications
- Always On
- Polygot – variety of backed, IaaS, PaaS, on-prem
Many things to think about.
What Azure Pieces Can We Use?
- Azure Load Balancer
- Azure Traffic Manager
Regional ADS as a service. A full reverse proxy. It terminates the incoming connection and creates a new one to the web server.
- Platform managed: built-in HA and sclability
- Layer 7 load balancing: URL path, host based, round robin, session affinity, redirection
- Security and SSL management: WAF, SSL Offload, SSL re-encryption, SSL policy
- Public or ILB: Public internet, internal or both.
- Flexible backends: VMs, VMSS, AKS, public IP, cloud services, ALB/ILB, On-premises
- Rich diagnostics: Azure monitor, log analytics, network watcher, RHC, more
Standard v2 SKU in GA
- Available in 26 regions
- Built-in zone redundancy
- Static VIP
- HTTP header/cookies insertion/modification
- Increased scale limits 20 -> 100 listeners
- Key vault integration and autorenewal of SSL certs (GA)
- AKS ingress controller (GA)
Autoscaling and performance improvements:
- Grow and shrink based on app traffic requirements
- 5 x better SSL offloads performance
- 500-50,000 connections/sec with RSA 2048 bit certs
- 30,000, 3,000,000 persistent connections
- 2,500 – 250,0000 HTTP req/sec
- 75% reduction in provisioning time ~5mins
Key Vault Integration in v2 GA
- Front end TLS cert integrated with Azure Key Vault
- Utilizes user-assigned management identity for access control on key vault
- Use certificate or secrets on Key Vault
- Pools every 4 hours to enable automatic cert renewal – you can force a poll if you need to
- Manual override or specific certificate version retrieval
WAG v2 Header Rewrites
- Manipulate request and response headers and cookies
- Strip port from x-forwarded-for header
- Add security headers like HSTS and X-XSS-Protection
- Common header manipulation ex: HOST, SERVER
- Conditional header rewrites … something
- Ingress controller for 1+ AKS clusters at one time
- Deployed using HELM – newer easier options by EOY
- Utilized pod-AAD for ARM authentication
- Tighter integration with AKS add-on support upcoming
- Supports URI-path based, host based, SSL termination, SSL re-encryption, redirection, custom health probes, draining, cookie affinity.
- Support for Let’s Encrypt provided TLS certs
- WAF fully supported with custom listener policies
- Support for multiple AKS as backend
- Support for mixed mode- both AKS and other backend types on the same application gateway.
Application Gateway Wildcard Listener
- Managed preview
- Support for wildcard characters in listener host name
- Supports * and ? characters in host name
- Associate wildcard or SAN certs to serve HTTPS
- Diagnostics Log Enhancements
- TLS protocol version, cipher spec selected.
- Backend target server, response code, latency.
- Metrics Enahncements
- Backend response status code
- RPS/healthy node
- End-to-end latency
- Backend latency
- Backend connect, first byte, and last byte latency.
Azure Monitor Insights for Application Gateway
- Public Preview
- Sign health and metric console for your entire cloud network#
- No agent/configuration required
- Visualize the structure and functional dependencies
He loads a Helm YAML config to the AKS cluster. Now the AKS cluster can configure listers, backend pools, rules, etc for the containers/services running on the cluster. Pretty cool.
Cloud native WAF
- Unified WAF offering
- Protect your apps at network edge or in region uniformly
- Public preview:
- Microsoft threat intelligence
- Protect apps against automated attacks
- Manage good/bad bots with Azure BotManager RuleSet
- Site and URI pathc specific WAF policies
- Customise WAF policies at regional WAF for finer grained protection at each host/listener or URI path level
- Geo-filtering on regional WAF
- HA, scalable fully platform managed
- Auto-scaling support
- New RuleSet CRS 3.1 added, will soon be the default
- Integration with Azure Sentinel SIEM
- Performance and concurrency enhancements
WAF Policy Enhancements
- Assign different policies to different sites behind the same WAF
- Increased configurability
- Per-URI policy
Geo Filtering Public Preview
- Block, allow, log countries.
- Easily configurable in WAF policy
- Geo data refreshed weekly
Only in special Portal URI at the moment – normal Azure Portal soon.
Bot Protection (Public Preview)